See you at TESOL 2017 in Seattle next week!

I’m excited to be attending the TESOL International 2017 Convention in Seattle next week where I will be a panelist on the topic Legal English: Strategies for Effective Communication in Law School (9:30am, Thursday, March 23) together with panel organizer Pam Dzunu of Washington University in St. Louis, Kirsten Schaetzel of Emory Law School, and Shelley Saltzman of Columbia University–all ESL/linguistics specialists who work with their respective law schools.

I will be speaking on the sub-topic of Comprehensible input for legal English students: Resources, approaches & ideas and sharing a couple activities related to reading and briefing cases.

Looking forward to meeting many people and learning new things!

Language, Law & LinkedIn: Encouraging Chinese Law Students to Embrace Professional Social Networking

I try to structure my Legal English courses to be more than just a vehicle for preparing students for U.S. law schools. Ideally, the courses (1) provide the students with a foundational understanding of U.S. law & legal concepts, (2) prepare students to succeed in their LL.M. and J.D. programs and (3) and in some small way, help students think about post-graduate employment in China. To achieve the first aim, I focus on language, vocabulary and concepts. To achieve the second aim, I focus on writing briefs, memos, legal analysis and discussing test-taking strategies. Achieving the third aim is more difficult, for a number of practical issues. LinkedIn has already been a valuable tool for achieving the third aim, and provides students with opportunities to improve their writing, improve their networking skills and begin building a professional presence in a specific field of law.

Step 1: Writing

                The initial process for registering for LinkedIn is painless. Providing a valid e-mail address and some basic information will allow a student to register for free. However, creating a professional profile takes a considerable amount of time and effort, especially for students who speak English as a second language. I start by explaining what LinkedIn is, and why LinkedIn is used by many professionals around the world. I show students sample profiles from law students and lawyers from their specific school to demonstrate that Chinese lawyers use LinkedIn. I discuss examples of bad writing and good writing, and work with the students on how certain information can be improved on existing profiles (without showing the name of the individual profile). I then explain why having a LinkedIn profile will be beneficial to my students in a way that makes them want to actually do all the work I am about to require of them.

In order to ensure that the profile is professional, I encourage students to write the information about their universities, work experience, publications, awards and summary in a word document. I am then able to review these and provide editing and comments. I like that the students are completing a writing exercise, sometimes without even realizing it. They are thinking about past activities, figuring out how to summarize key information in enough detail to provide meaning, and beginning to build their professional profiles. The summary section takes the most time, and students have to critically assess their individual goals for their profiles. Once the language is professional, the students then add the information to their profiles.

Step 2: Networking

Once the profiles are completed, I work with students on actually using their profiles. I show them how to search within their university to see how many of alumni on LinkedIn are in the city where they will attend law school. We then break that down into people within the legal field (as opposed to finance, human resources, engineering, etc.). We then look at which alumni are in their current city and see whether there are any connections. As an optional exercise, I tell students to draft a professional e-mail to a particular alumnus, and ask to meet. I ask the students to find an alumnus with a position or job similar to the one that the student wants right out of college (entry-level) and one with a position or job that the student wants later in life. I ask the students to preferably find alumni who have studied in the United States (ideally at the same school my student is going to), and to then write the e-mail in English (Chinese if the student isn’t comfortable writing in English, or if the alumnus never studied in the United States). I then work with my students on the grammar and structure of the e-mail, the types of questions that the student will want to ask, and etiquette for such a meeting (dress, appearance, behavior, etc.). After the student completes this exercise, the student writes a follow-up e-mail thanking the alumnus, and provides me with an overview (in English) of how the meeting went (either in-person or via e-mail).

Step 3: Professional Presence

After the networking, the focus turns to fine-tuning and maintaining the professional presence, while beginning to build a name in a specific area of law. As the student’s network grows, as the student achieves more (jobs, awards, publications, etc.), and as the student decides which law school to attend, I ask the student to continue updating the LinkedIn profile. If the student has a specific area of interest, I explain to the student how to join groups, display and create related content, and begin focusing on building a personal brand. I work with the student to target current Chinese students at the particular American law school, American students with common interests, and alumni within the desired field. I explain to the students that they should maintain their professional presence, and to think of LinkedIn as a more professional version of WeChat. We discuss what is appropriate to post and comment on, and how to continue expanding their networks through alumni activities, meetings, and professional organizations. Finally, we discuss how the students should use their LinkedIn profiles to target Chinese firms and companies, as well as international firms and companies, for post-graduate employment.

Goals

Rather than merely creating a LinkedIn profile, I try to incorporate language exercises into each stage of the process. Whether the student is summarizing a previous internship, writing an English blog post on a hot topic in Chinese law, or speaking with an alumnus of their American law school in the United States, I want my students to improve their English language and legal analysis. The added bonus is they are improving their professional communication, something Chinese managing partners have repeatedly told me is important. Although I have just started working with students on LinkedIn, I am noticing enthusiasm for using the website, and for using it in ways that ultimately enhance their networking skills. My goal is for LinkedIn to serve as a small part of a coordinated effort to help my Chinese students who will study in the United States secure excellent post-graduate opportunities.

 

Additional Notes

  1. I explain to students how important a professional headshot is for LinkedIn, especially for law students interested in being hired by law firms. First impressions matter, especially in law.
  2. I explain to students how LinkedIn is only as powerful as the network created, and work with the students to find connections from their schools, work, hometowns, etc. I generally wait a week to begin the networking portion, so that students can actually build a small initial network.
  3. There is no universal style for how Chinese lawyers write their names on LinkedIn. Let’s assume a female student named Zhang Yusi chose Jessica as her English name. Her profile might read:
  • Yusi Zhang
  • ZHANG Yusi
  • Jessica Zhang
  • Yusi (Jessica) Zhang
  • Yusi Zhang (with Chinese characters for her name)
  • Or some other combination of English and Chinese

 

Reflections on Teaching Legal English for Six Months in China

On December 1, 2015, I boarded a flight for Beijing to teach “Legal English” at Beijing Jiaotong University. On June 1, 2016, I completed my last “Legal English for American Law School” (“LEALS”) course in Shanghai at East China University of Political Science and Law. In between, I taught LEALS in Chongqing at Southwest University of Political Science and Law. Reflecting on the entire experience, I am confident that I learned even more than my students! As I finalize my Fall 2016 and Spring 2017 teaching schedules, I am excited to spend the summer tweaking and revamping the courses to incorporate the amazing feedback from my students and improvements I noticed could make this an even better way to prepare students for American law schools.

Recently, my proposal for Teaching Legal English in China: Preparing Students for Transnational Legal Practice has been evaluated and accepted by the Organizing Committee of the 10th International Symposium on Teaching and Researching EFL and ESP Writing for Global and Professional Communication.  The Conference will take place in Taiyuan, China, in late September 2016.  As I began thinking through how I would frame my proposal (and ultimately, my presentation), I began to really think critically of the last six months teaching legal English. Below are four comments on the course from the first cycle of teaching, and one note on how I hope to improve the course going forward.

  1. In general, I structure the class by using one statute as my “vehicle” for teaching students legal English.  I have found that at the early stages of learning U.S. law, it is far less confusing and provides them with an opportunity to really focus on one area.  Due to the nature of short courses (anywhere from two weeks to one month with all other regularly scheduled courses), there is a premium on how much time the students can spend learning new materials.  So far, I have had the most success with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”). I prefer using primary texts (in part to give the students the experience of using these texts, in part because I have not yet found any book that covers everything that I need), and collecting and editing down the statutes, legislative history and cases has been an extremely rewarding experience for me personally and professionally.
  1. While there are many ways to think through teaching legal English, this has been by far the most effective for the goals that the universities have for my visits. As discussed previously, universities want me to help their students improve their legal English, legal writing and understanding of U.S. law at the exact same time. By focusing on one statute to teach legal English, we accomplish all these tasks (and more). My students leave the course feeling confident that the skills they learned in relation to a certain statute will make them effective legal analysts no matter what statute they see next time. By understanding how to dissect the FCPA, I hope they can employ similar strategies to dissect the ESA, and any other statute.
  1. Specifically, the course takes a deep dive into statutory analysis, after a basic introduction to U.S. law. We go over the language of the statute or statutory provisions that will form the backbone of the class, which allows us to work together to determine which words are ambiguous and which words we think lead to litigation the most. From there, we discuss the plain language of statutes, legislative history, canons of statutory construction and cases that analyze the specific statute or statutory provisions. I complement this understanding of the statutes with specific writing assignments and group activities that reinforce what the students are being taught during the classes. The writing assignments tend to be analytical, and generally require predictions from the students as lawyers. The group activities tend to be more strategic, and generally require students to think through multiple arguments and determine which one would be the most effective for a lawyer to make.
  1. The cases that I use tend to be the most focused on language.  Students see that the courts have to determine laws after having to understand the language and meaning of a certain word or phrase. This reinforces the importance of English and legal English for my students, and lets them see firsthand just how important language is to law. The cases skew harder to read than the average case a legal English course would normally use, so I make liberal use of providing synonyms for complex words, summaries for students to read after they finish reading a paragraph to ensure they understood the main ideas and sample case briefs for the students to compare to the briefs they wrote.  My goal is for them to work hard to improve their language abilities, but feel like I am guiding them every step of the way.
  1. Because my classes are designed to be small, I have the opportunity to speak with students multiple times during class. During two 45-minute role play simulations, I took each student outside for 5 minutes and had an oral assessment of the background facts, strategy for the role play and their thoughts on the legal issues. My students loved this activity, and it has made me begin thinking through how to incorporate this activity into more classes. I was thinking about either (1) having a teaching assistant monitor the role plays while I am outside of the classroom or (2) teaching one or two less periods per class each week, and using extra periods to routinely conduct the outside the classroom spoken activity.

Fiscal check-up

Homophones can be tricky, not only for international law students, but for our domestic state legislators!

“Brief cases” and “case briefs” both contain important legal information. “Depositions” and “dispositions” are both important landmarks in the life of a case. No wonder students can get confused at times. But here is an opportunity to show our student writers why we require such precision in their language:

HR 1220

 

Article: “Conceptual blending in legal writing: Linking definitions to facts”

Professor Alissa J. Hartig of the Portland State University’s Department of Applied Linguistics

Conceptual blending in legal writing: Linking definitions to facts” is a recent article published by Alissa Hartig in the English for Specific Purposes journal based on a textual analysis of the “question presented” in legal memoranda.

Hartig is an Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics at Portland State University. She is the author of a forthcoming book titled Connecting language and content in English for Specific Purposes: Case studies in law. (Publisher: Multilingual Matters) Her previous
research and writing on the intersection of law and linguistics includes a 2014 article published in English for ESPJournalSpecific Purposes titled “Plain English and legal writing: Comparing expert and novice writers.”

Introducing Writing Critique

One challenge of introducing international LL.M. students to legal writing is coaxing them to evaluate and comment on examples of English writing. This is a necessarycritique practice in my writing course; students look at model answers for format and organization, notice cohesive devices and subject headings, and read examples of strong and weak analysis to compare to their own work. Students also conduct peer reviews, and revise and resubmit drafts of their work, incorporating comments from the professor and their
teaching assistants. So, students should start learning to critique, and to respond to critique, early in the course.

Critique is often daunting to international students, I think for two reasons. First, they do not have enough confidence in their English writing and reading skills to believe they can improve upon any example. Second, they  might feel uncomfortable finding fault with a classmate’s work, particularly if that classmate is a lawyer, judge, or other professional in their home country.

So a few weeks ago, I decided I’d have my new class start with me.   Continue reading

On “Legal English”

TaleTwoCities“It was the best of terms, it was the worst of terms.”
(With sincerest apologies to Charles Dickens)

“Legal English” is a rather loaded term. Much like “family values” or “activist judges,” its meaning is vague, subjective, and dependent on the context as well as brain of the person ingesting the phrase.

For some, it means teaching a very stripped-down version of legal writing and legal concepts. For others, it means an ESL course that focuses on law-related vocabulary and situations. It can also refer equally to a brush-up course for practicing lawyers taught at a private language school as well as a summer course designed to prepare incoming LL.M. students for the law school experience.

In each instance, Continue reading